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新托福语法讲解:介宾短语

2014-11-28   作者:佚名   来源:本站整理   浏览:8   评论:0  

第二节 介宾短语

介词不能单独使用,而必须和其他词连用,这些词称作介词的宾语,它们共同构成的介宾短语常在句中作状语,作名词的后置定语,有时作某些动词的宾语补足语

考点一 名词作介词宾语

大部分介词的宾语都是由名词(包括代词)充当的,如:under the tree, during the day, 这一考点在题中多次出现

例题:

(1)

The development of mechanical timepieces spurred the search for ----with which to regulate them.

(A) more accurate than sundials

(B) more accurate sundials

(C) sundials more accurately

(D) more accurately than sundials

答案:B

解释:search for缺少宾语, 只有B是表达无误的名词词组, 可以作宾语;其他选项的比较形式都有错。

(2)

Different species of octopuses may measure anywhere from two inches to over thirty feet in long.

应改为:in length.

解释:long 是形容词, 不能单独接在介词之后, 其名词形式length与in构成介宾短语, 表示长度

考点二 动名词作介词宾语

名词作宾语时,之后不能再接宾语,这一缺陷可由动名词弥补。

如:before doing the job , after getting back

改错题中常把应该用动名词作宾语的地方误用为名词或不定式,需留心陷阱

例题:

(1)

The Conestoga wagon, used for to carry heavy loads over long distances, originatedaround 1725 in a region of Pennsylvania occupied by the Conestoga Indians.

应改为:carrying.

解释:不定式不能作for的宾语, 改为动名词即可

(2)

Copper sulfate, spread in judicious amounts, kills algae ----harming fish or aquatic invert-ebrates.

(A) does not

(B) but does no

(C) except

(D) without

答案:D

解释:harming 是动名词形式, 因此要求前面的词是介词或可接动名词的动词. A B 可首先排除; C 虽是介词, 但与句意不符.

(3) Mary Ann Hardy was known for her skill to paint miniature watercolor portraits on ivory.

应改为:in painting

解释:后置定语修饰名词,什么方面的技能,不能用不定式。

考点三 连接从句或不定式

介词之后还可以接宾语从句或不定式短语,但要借助于

连接代词 (如:what , which, whom)

或连接副词 (如:how, when,where)

例句: I knew nothing about how he got the green card.

She’s pretty hesitant about which one to choose.

例题:

(1)

The Cubists were concerned with how----a given subject from different points of view simultaneously.

(A) represented

(B) do they represent

(C) to represent

(D) representing

答案:C

解释:介词with后面的宾语不完整, C 是不定式短语作宾语. A D都不足以和how构成宾语从句; B不应用疑问句语序, 若去掉do则是正确的

(2)

The scholarly interest in perception stems largely from questions about the sources and validity of what ----.

(A) it is known as human knowledge

(B) is known as human knowledge

(C) known human knowledge

(D) is human knowledge known

答案:B

解释:介词of的宾语残缺, B 构成宾语从句, 包含短语be known as;A多主语it; C 无法与what契合; D 语序错误

注意:介词后面不能够接 that 所引导的从句,除非in that连起来作为特殊的状语从句引导词,表原因

(3) (Exer1_21_31)

Soprano Julia Migenes-Johnson believes in that her Latin American background helped her interpret the role of the Spanish character Carmen in a 1984 opera film.

应改为:believes

解释:介词后面一般不能够接that 引导的从句。除非in that连起来

(4)

Hovercraft, or air-cushion vehicles, are unusual ---- travel over land and water on a layer of air .

(A) they

(B) in they

(C) that they

(D) in that they

答案:D

解释:空格前是句子的主谓语,空格后是谓语结构,空格处需要从句引导词及从句主语,只有D符合题意,in that是特殊的状语从句引导词,表原因

词汇:hovercraft: 水翼船, cushion: 垫子

六、与for搭配

1. account for, substitute for, look for, search for, run for (竞选), ask for

2. be suited for, be responsible for, be famous /known /noted for(因…..而著名)

be valuable for, be appreciated for

七、与to搭配

1. belong to, lead to, refer to, relate to, devote to, adapt to, adjust to, dedicate to, commit to,

owe to, do harm to, lead to, date back to, give way to, contribute to

2. be resistant to, be similar to, be equal to, be sensitive to, be subject to, be close to,

be native to, contrary to, be adapted to, be destined to (注定)

八、其他

1. range from…to, benefit from, distinguish…from , derive from, stem from,

break away from, protect from, prevent from, prohibit from, shield from

2. serve as, regard as, consider as, describe as, remember as, be known as,

3. transform…into, convert…into, change…into, divide…into,

4. rank among

例题:

(1)

The young of most bird species are totally dependence on parental care after hatching.

应改为:dependent.

解释:be dependent on是固定词组, 意同depend on

(2)

Mary Cassatt specialized ----mothers with their children.

(A) painted

(B) who painted

(C) paintings

(D) in painting

答案:D

解释:此句涉及动词词组specialize in doing ,表示专门从事某事。A 与原句谓语冲突;B定语从句无先行词;C与空前后的成分都无法连接

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